What is a Non-Viable Pregnancy?

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We know the statistics: between 10-20% of known pregnancies end in miscarriage. According to the March of Dimes, that number may be as high as 50% when we take into account pregnancies ending before a woman misses a menstrual cycle. It’s the difference between a viable and non-viable pregnancy.

Dr. Sheeva Talebian, of CCRM Fertility in New York, shares that repeated miscarriages are among the factors that might lead someone to consider surrogacy as a means of starting a family.

What leads to a non-viable pregnancy? We’ll explore the terminology, causes and options to help achieve a healthy pregnancy and baby.

What does viability mean in pregnancy?

The term “viable pregnancy” comes from the word “vita,” which is Latin for “alive.” In the first trimester of a pregnancy, “viable” means that a baby can be born alive.

What is a viable pregnancy?

A non-viable pregnancy means there is no chance of a live born baby. Depending on the stage of pregnancy, viability means different things.

  • Before 6 weeks, it can mean that Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) levels are increasing normally. hCG is a hormone produced by the placenta during its implantation process in the uterus.

  • After 6 weeks, a normal fetal heart indicates a viable pregnancy. A fetal heart with no heartbeat at any point is called fetal demise.

  • After 22-24 weeks, a viable pregnancy is when a baby has a chance to survive outside of the womb. However, some countries without adequate neonatal care consider a pregnancy to be non-viable at less than 26-28 weeks gestation.
    Before 22-24 weeks, a non-viable pregnancy is when a baby delivered has no chance of survival, even if there is still a heartbeat in the uterus.

Pregnancy is especially delicate in the first trimester, making it difficult to diagnose as viable or non-viable. These guidelines were developed to help define the ultrasound diagnosis of a non-viable pregnancy:

  • Crown to rump length of > 6 mm and no heartbeat
  • Mean sac diameter of > 24 mm and no embryo
  • No fetal heartbeat >=2 weeks after a scan showed a gestational sac without a yolk sac
  • No fetal heartbeat > 10 days after a scan showed a gestational sac with a yolk sac

What are the symptoms of a non-viable pregnancy?

On a technical level, the viability of a pregnancy can initially be measured by hCG levels. While a home pregnancy test can detect it in urine, the most accurate number comes from a blood test. The level of hCG should double every two or three days. Once it reaches 2,000 mIU/ml, embryonic development should be visible on an ultrasound.

A chemical pregnancy becomes non-viable shortly after implantation. While hCG levels may initially be elevated, the pregnancy does not continue to develop and there are rarely any symptoms. Unless they’ve used assisted reproductive technology (ART), most women won’t even know they were pregnant.

If a pregnancy becomes non-viable later in gestation, however, there may be a variety of physical symptoms:

  • Mild to severe cramps
  • Pain in the back or abdomen
  • White-pink mucus
  • Passing tissue or clot-like material
  • Loss of pregnancy symptoms such as nausea, though this can happen in a viable pregnancy too

Some women don’t learn their pregnancy is non-viable until they visit their doctor or midwife. By the 6th week of pregnancy, an ultrasound can determine whether there is a yolk sac within the gestational sac. The ultrasound should also be able to pick up a fetal pole, between the head (crown) and the bottom of the buttocks (rump); the length of the fetal pole is called crown-rump length. Finally, a healthy fetal heartbeat is a key factor in a viable pregnancy. Once the fetal heartbeat is present and healthy, the risk of miscarriage drops significantly.

Can you have a non-viable pregnancy but no miscarriage?

Yes. In what is known as a missed miscarriage or missed abortion, a pregnancy can be non-viable. The placenta may continue to release hormones, resulting in continued signs of pregnancy. If it’s early enough in a pregnancy, in most cases the body will eventually expel the fetal tissue naturally. If fetal tissue remains, however, it can become dangerous and must be removed. In this case, a D&C procedure is done to remove the tissue and prevent infection. This will also allow the body’s hormone levels to return to normal.

What are the causes of a non-viable pregnancy?

Unfortunately, many different factors come into play when determining the viability of a pregnancy.

  • A chemical pregnancy, when the fertilized egg does not properly implant in the uterus.

  • An ectopic pregnancy, when the fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus, typically in a fallopian tube.

  • A molar pregnancy, when a tumor develops in the uterus at the beginning of the pregnancy as a result of a genetic error.

  • A blighted ovum, when the pregnancy stops after the gestational sac forms.

  • Abnormal chromosome count or congenital defects that prevent the baby from surviving.

  • A birth that is so premature that the baby is unable to survive outside the womb.

Are there non-viable pregnancy options?

If you’ve experienced a non-viable pregnancy once, it doesn’t automatically mean that you can’t go on to have a healthy pregnancy in the future. You will be encouraged to wait between one to three menstrual cycles before trying for another pregnancy. After more than one miscarriage, however, it’s best to speak with your health practitioner. Further testing may be recommended, and you may ultimately consider assisted reproductive technology. Preimplantation genetic testing, for example, can be performed during an IVF cycle to help determine the healthiest embryos and reduce the risk of miscarriage. Surrogacy may also be recommended to help you build your family.

Is Surrogacy An Option After Recurrent Pregnancy Loss?

Yes, surrogacy is an option and it has the highest success rating of any fertility treatment. Moving down this particular path to parenthood may be unexpected, but it can significantly increase the chances of building a family. In fact, the technology behind surrogacy as well as egg donation lead to very high rates of live birth success. If you’d like to learn more about your options, ConceiveAbilities Surrogacy & Egg Donor Agency is here to advocate for you.

How Can You Help Someone Experiencing Infertility?

Many of our surrogates decide to become a surrogate because they can’t imagine not experiencing the joy of parenthood. They have also personally witnessed friends and family struggle with infertility and want to help someone like them have a family.

Are you a woman who enjoyed a healthy and successful pregnancy? Do you have friends or family who have suffered from infertility or need assistance from someone else to build their family? Have you ever considered the role you could play in helping someone else build their family - as a surrogate? Learn more about the surrogate process of helping someone else's dream of building a family come true. We would love to talk with you.

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